Volume 8 Issue 4 (October 2023)

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Self-Esteem, Social Media and Internet Addiction Regarding Adult Individuals

Beytunur Tecimer Süleyman Balcı
Pages: 697-715

The aim of current research is to analyze adult individuals’ levels of self-esteem, internet and social media addiction. Moreover, adult individuals’ levels of self-esteem, social media and internet addiction were investigated according to their employment and marital status, age and gender. In current research, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Test, Young Internet Addiction Test, Social Media Addiction Test for Adults, Descriptive Information Form, which were prepared by researchers were conducted for collecting necessary data for this research from the participants of 528 adult individuals. The results of the current research indicated that there are significantly negative relationships among adults’ levels of internet, social media addiction and the self-esteem; the higher their levels of self-esteem the lower their levels of social media and internet addiction. It was concluded that the adults’ addiction levels of social media and internet significantly predicted their self-esteem level. In addition, there exist significant differences regarding adults’ levels of social media and internet addiction, and self-esteem according to working and marital status and age. It was found that there is insignificant difference with regard to gender

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The Repositioned Role of School Leadership on Learning to Thrive in the Post-COVID-19 Pandemic Era: A Narrative Review of Uganda’s Context

Shallon Atuhaire Kedrace R. Turyagyenda
Pages: 716-725

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruptions in the education system and has worsened inequality within and between nations. The competitive power of Uganda is hinged on academic instruction as the first strategy followed by school leadership, which may explain for up to 27% of the differences in students' learning achievement. While there is glaring literature on school leadership, and its role in learner achievement, the repositioned role of school leadership to match the demands of the post –COVID19 pandemic era has not been given the attention it deserves. Therefore, this narrative review specifically answered the role of school leadership in ensuring learning to thrive in the post-COVID-19 era. This role of education as a very powerful tool for socio-economic growth, development and transformation is clearly spelt out in a number of documents including; Uganda’s vision 2040 and the National Development Plan III. Despite of thorough planning, a number of weaknesses in the education system have been exposed by the COVID-19 pandemic which indicated the need for learning to thrive whereby learners are able to think, provide solutions, and adopt. School leaders have a duty beyond the managerial role and the post COVID-19 era demands re-evaluation of the processes to ensure quality and inclusive education while considering the 21st Century demands. Therefore, school leadership has an instructional, distinct, and systemic role to foster learning to thrive in the post-pandemic era. This is more supported by working more collaboratively to share knowledge and best practices with other schools and communities.

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The Effect of Story Reading Activity on Attitudes of Typically Developing Students Towards Students with Special Needs

Zehra Keşci Yahya Çıkılı
Pages: 726-739

Making children with special needs a part of society depends on others’ accepting them with their differences and supporting them in considering their needs. For this reason, various activities can be used as tools to develop social tolerance and demonstrate positive attitudes toward children with special needs. Some of these activities include informing, drama, and reading children's books. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the reading storybook activity on the attitudes toward students with special needs in students who demonstrate typical development. The study used a mixed-method design. The study group was composed of 84 third-grade primary school students who received education in the Ağrı city center. Data were collected through the Student Interview Form developed by the researchers and the Social Acceptance Attitude Scale developed by Siperstein (1988); reliability and validity for the Turkish translated form were performed by Civelek (1990). Results showed that the Social Acceptance Scale post-test data demonstrated differences in favor of the experimental group students who were exposed to the reading storybook activity compared to the control group post-test data. Besides, the students reportedly found the activity enjoyable, and at the end of the activity, they stated many positive views about students with special needs.

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The Effect of Cooperative Learning Method on Academic Achievement, Attitude and Critical Thinking Disposition in the 7th Grade Mathematics Lesson*

Pages: 740-757

This study aims to determine the contribution of using the cooperative learning method in the 7th-grade mathematics course on students' academic achievement in mathematics, attitudes towards mathematics, and critical thinking dispositions. This study was conducted with 40 students in a Mediterranean region of Turkey district in the 2020-2021 academic year. The study was conducted with a quasi-experimental design and cooperative teaching methods (Student Teams-Achievement Divisions and Team-Game-Tournament technique) were applied in the experimental group, and the activities in the Ministry of National Education middle school mathematics curriculum were applied in the control group. The data collection tools used in the study were the "Achievement Test" developed by the researchers, the "Attitude Towards Mathematics Scale", and the "Critical Thinking Disposition Scale." The study revealed that the academic achievement of the students in both groups increased significantly (with a significant effect of the teaching method). Attitude towards mathematics scores decreased significantly in the experimental group (with a moderate effect of the teaching method) and increased insignificantly in the control group. Critical thinking disposition scores decreased insignificantly in the experimental group (with a moderate effect of the teaching method) and increased significantly in the control group. In conclusion, the cooperative learning was more effective in increasing the students’ academic achievement than the current curriculum. However, the method was not effective in increasing the mean scores of the students' attitude towards mathematics and critical thinking dispositions compared to the current curriculum

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Pre-service Teachers' Perspectives on Discourse Analysis and Its Implications for English Language Teaching

Pages: 758-772

This study aims to investigate the perceptions of pre-service English teachers regarding discourse analysis (DA) and its potential impact on English Language Teaching (ELT). The participants of the study included 198 second-year pre-service teachers (126 females and 72 males) studying at a Turkish state university. The study adopted a qualitative descriptive research design. Data were collected through written reflections, and qualitative content analysis was employed to analyse the data. The results of the study revealed that pre-service English teachers expressed positive perceptions towards DA, recognizing its potential contributions to their professional development and future teaching careers. Participants reported that the course helped them to understand the importance of language use in different contexts and situations and provided them with practical tools for analysing and teaching language. The findings suggest that ELT programs can consider incorporating DA into their curriculum to help pre-service teachers develop a deep understanding of language use and its implications for effective teaching. By doing this, teacher education programs may support the growth of proficient language teachers and ultimately raise the standard of language instruction.

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Why Do Teachers Leave the Profession: A Case Study

Pages: 773-787

This case study aims to explore the reasons for teachers leaving the profession by examining a specific context. The study investigates the factors that contribute to teacher attrition and provides insights into the experiences and perspectives of teachers who have chosen to leave their teaching careers. By understanding the underlying causes of teacher turnover, this research seeks to inform policy and practice to improve teacher retention and address the challenges faced by educators. The study employs qualitative research methods, including interviews and surveys, to gather data from former teachers and analyze their responses. The findings shed light on the complex factors influencing teachers' decisions to leave and offer recommendations for creating a more supportive and fulfilling teaching environment.

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Bibliometric Analysis of Applications Articles on Online Assessment Process

Pages: 788-802

The study aims to reveal the existing situation, deficiencies, and results of the applications in the online assessment process and to provide suggestions to researchers and practitioners. For this purpose, studies on the applications carried out in the online assessment process were examined and analyzed, and suggestions were made based on the results. The systematic literature review method was used in the study. The results were analyzed by reviewing the research in the literature with the research topic. The studies were collected by examining the full texts of the research included in the analysis, the applications used in the assessment process, and their results. The purpose of the study, the assessment process, and the results of the applications made in this process were examined in detail. These studies were then classified according to focus topics using NVivo 12 software. Additionally, the research findings were presented using descriptive analysis. As a result, studies on online assessmentgenerally focus on the obstacles and experiences encountered in the assessment process. The technical infrastructure problems, accessibility, and technology literacy issues encountered in these studies are imherent elements of online learning environments and must be addressed. By overcoming these issues completely, an in-depth examination of exam security and exam quality can be condycted. Furthermore,the negativities experienced in the assessment processes in applied fields are another area that needs investigation and is open to research .

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Pre-Service Elementary Teachers’ Experiences in Researching and Evaluating Scientists and Sharing Their Findings

Pages: 803-820

This research aimed to reveal the experiences of the pre-service elementary teachers’ researching and evaluating scientists and sharing their findings through original posters. The research was designed in a phenomenological pattern, one of the qualitative research methods. The research included 28 pre-service elementary teachers who were in the second term of their undergraduate education. A three-month implementation process was carried out to provide pre-service elementary teachers with experience in researching and evaluating scientists, and sharing their findings, and to interpret their experiences. In the research, a semi-structured interview form, an observation form, video recordings and photographs, and posters prepared by pre-service teachers were used as data collection tools. The obtained data were analyzed by the content analysis method. The research showed that before the research and evaluation process, pre-service elementary teachers generally had superficial knowledge about scientists. The qualities of scientists that attract the participants’ attention were as follows: scientists’ dedication, creativity, hard work despite all the difficulties, and approaching life from a different perspective. Emphasizing the contributions of the experience to the pre-service teachers in terms of individual and social gain and benefits for the future students is another result. It was determined that pre-service teachers frequently referred to non-scientific sources such as web pages and blogs as much as scientific sources. The experience they gained made the teacher candidates feel pride and happiness and increased their professional self-confidence. The results are discussed based on the pre-service elementary teachers’ awareness of science and scientists and their gaining experience in this activity.

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What YouTubers Tell Children

Özkan Sapsağlam
Pages: 821-831

Today's children are growing up in a digital world, surrounded by electronic devices and interacting with various media types and characters from a young age. When used conscientiously, technology and media can make many positive contributions to human life. However, if not used properly, they have the potential to lead to serious negative consequences. Learning through observation and imitation is crucial in children's learning processes. The quality of interaction with models and the models from which they learn play an important role. Today, media characters are the ones to which children are closest and interact with the most. Some children spend more time in front of screens and in media environments than they do with their parents and siblings. As a result, the content which media characters present to children and how they behave can significantly impact what children say and do. To examine the content of YouTuber videos produced for children conducted a qualitative research study using a case study design. The criterion sampling method was used to select study materials, which comprised content videos produced by ten different YouTubers. The research data were gathered using a YouTuber Video Review Form developed specifically by the researcher. To analyze the data, the thematic analysis technique was used, a type of content analysis method. The findings showed that the videos contained negative verbal expressions and visual content related to violence, aggression, slang, harmful habits, product advertisements and sexuality. Additionally, it was found that the YouTubers used verbal expressions which did not follow language rules, exhibited a unique form of expression, and used dialectal language.

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Dwelling Upon the Backstage of the Success of Rural Schools: A Systematic Review Analysis

Anıl Kadir ERANIL
Pages: 832-852

The subject of this study is to look into the ‘secret’ behind the success of rural schools. For this purpose, successful schools were searched in databases and 31 studies were reached as a result of the said examination. These studies were analyzed by systematic review analysis. According to the results of the research, 13 themes and 70 codes emerged. It has been revealed that school administrators have strong leadership characteristics and accordingly, school cultures of the schools in question constitute a healthy structure. In addition, teachers attach importance to their own professional development. They have a strong communication with each other with the stakeholders e.g., administrators/students within the school and their communication with families is also strong. In these schools, instructional materials are sufficient, student interactions are given importance, and there are environments where social activities can be carried out easily. Lastly, school administrations make student-centered plans with measurable realistic missions.

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Evaluation of Nature-Based Production Activities with Computer Science for Middle School Students: The Sample of the "Inspired by Nature" Project

Pages: 853-863

This research reflects the outputs of the "I'm Inspired by Nature" project supported by the TÜBİTAK Nature and Science Schools program. The aim of the research is the informatics production workshops that take place together with the nature workshops; The aim of this study is to examine the effects of participants on their scientific attitudes, their beliefs in science and their attitudes towards STEM. Sequential explanatory design, which is one of the mixed research methods in which quantitative and qualitative approaches are used together, was used in the research. Secondary school students participating in the research went through a 70-hour training process. At the end of this process, it was seen that there was no significant change in the scientific attitudes and scientific views of the participants as a result of the measurements made with the measurement tools, but there was a positive increase in their attitudes towards STEM.

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A Systematic Review on Recommendation Systems Developed for the Field of Adult Education

Pages: 864-878

Today, the changing job performances and the desire of individuals to improve themselves have created the desire of people to quickly reach the content that is suitable for them. The use of suggestion systems designed to identify the needs of individuals and present the most appropriate content is considered as a solution method in this regard. The aim of this systematic study is to determine the trends in the field by making a comprehensive analysis about what kind of suggestions are given in the studies on the recommendation systems used and designed in the field of adult education, in which year the studies were conducted, the research method used, the filtering methods used and the algorithms used, and to identify the trends in this field to establish an up-to-date basis for new entrants. As a result of the review made in various databases, 113 studies were reached, and a systematic analysis of 75 studies that met the inclusion criteria was carried out. As a result of the review, it was seen that the most content suggestions were made, the most publications were made in 2020, the research method focused on determining the system performance and promoting, and a limited number of experimental studies were included. It has been determined that the most collaborative filtering method is used, and content-based and hybrid filtering methods are less preferred. It has been concluded that the K nearest neighbor algorithm is used much more than other algorithms, and besides this algorithm, artificial neural networks, support vector machines, decision trees and newly proposed algorithms by the researchers are also included. In line with the results obtained, investigations were made and suggestions were made for practice and research for future studies.

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Bibliometric Analysis of Early Childhood Education Studies on The Theme of Robotic Coding From A Developmental Perspective

Pages: 879-863

This study aims to analyse the reflections on robotic coding for early childhood and scanned in the Web of Sciences (WOS) database from a developmental perspective. The method of the research is bibliometric research from qualitative research designs. In this context, 70 academic publications scanned in the WOS database within the framework of the criteria determined by the researchers and dealing with robotic coding in early childhood constitute the research data sources. According to the findings obtained, 45 studies were carried out as quantitative, 11 as qualitative, 11 as mixed design, and three as design-based research. The results reveal that the activities carried out with robotic coding contribute to children's cognitive, language and socio-emotional development, as well as their computational thinking skills, collaborative working skills, analytical thinking skills, problem-solving skills and mathematics skills. However, adverse effects such as children's technology literacy and teachers' inadequacies in using robotic coding tools were also observed.

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Personality Traits as a Predictor of School Administrators' Communication Competencies

Bayram BOZKURT Hatice ÇEVİK Ayşe Betül PAKSOY
Pages: 889-900

In this research, it is purposed to reveal whether school administrators' personality traits predict their communication competences according to teachers' perceptions or at what level. Accordingly, the research was designed in a predictive correlational research design. The sample of the study consists of 489 teachers determined by simple random sampling method. In the study, the data were collected through the "Adjective-Based Personality Test" and "Communication Competencies" scales. Descriptive statistics such as arithmetic mean and standard deviation were used to determine the levels of school administrators' personality traits and communication competencies, Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient analyses were used to determine the relationship between school administrators' personality traits and communication competencies, and multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine the predictive power of personality traits on communication competencies. As a result of the research, it was determined that there were significant relationships between all variables except the relationship between neuroticism and extroversion personality traits. In addition, personality traits such as neuroticism, extroversion, and agreeableness were found to be significant predictors of school administrators' communication competences. However, the results related to the prediction of responsibility and openness to experience personality traits were not significant. It can be said that school administrators can communicate easily with other stakeholders in their schools with their extroverted personality, responsibility and mild-manneredness characteristics and they can create differences in their schools with a sense of responsibility.

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University Students' Employment Anxiety and Ways of Coping in the Context of Incomplete Learning During the Pandemic Period: A Qualitative Research

Pages: 901-915

University students' employment anxiety is affected by economic crises, pandemics, lack of experience, incomplete learning, unemployment rates of the country, the department of study, occupational goals and environmental factors of individuals. This study aims to determine which factors affect university students' employment anxiety and to explore the impact of learning losses experienced during the pandemic on employment anxiety and the coping strategies developed by students. For this reason, qualitative research method was used in the current study. In the research, categories and codes were created using the Maxqda 2022 package program. Research data were collected through two different methods: focus-group interviews and semi-structured interviews. The sample of the study consisted of 16 participants, 9 female and 7 male. As a result, in addition to individual and environmental factors, incomplete learning experienced with the pandemic period affects university students' employment anxiety, and students have developed various ways of coping with them.

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Critical Pedagogy in Turkish Education System: The Opinions of Academicians

Şehnaz Nigar Çelik
Pages: 916-931

This study analyzed the Turkish education system in terms of critical pedagogy principles. Through the semi-structured interview form developed within the scope of the research, interviews were conducted with 32 academicians, and the data obtained as a result of the study were brought together on a question basis in the first stage and coded using MAXQDA software. The codes that show the same theme group characteristics and provide integrity of meaning within themselves were brought together. The data obtained in this context were analyzed, and the codes, categories, and themes were visualized and presented in MAXMaps according to their frequency of repetition. As a result of the research, the participants primarily defined the concept of critical pedagogy as a questioning perspective. The participants stated that the education system does not respond to differentiated needs, does not contribute to social justice and equality, and does not pave the way for social change and development. The participants also believe that a qualified and sustainable policy is not implemented in the Turkish education system. It has been argued that teachers do not contribute to pupils becoming influential individuals or thinking critically and that the reasons for this are the educational systems in place. As a result of the study, it was suggested that education should be free from ideology, teachers should be supported intellectually and professionally, and school-family cooperation should be ensured

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Ethical Review of Teachers’ Relations with the School Environment

Fatih Baydar A. Faruk Levent
Pages: 932-946

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of teachers with the school environment from an ethical perspective, according to teachers ’ opinions. In this research, a case study design from the qualitative research method was used. The research data were obtained through face-to-face interviews with 20 teachers working in Sultanbeyli, Pendik, and Kartal districts of Istanbul. The data collection tool of the research was the semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers. The data obtained from the interviews were analyzed using the descriptive analysis technique, and the participants ’ opinions were gathered under five themes (ethical behaviors of teachers, ethical decision making, increasing ethical sensitivity, unethical behaviors, and the harms of unethical behaviors). Because of the research, it was determined that the ethical competencies of teachers should be increased, that teachers should be role models for their followers, and that they should have several ethical competencies. Additionally, the study identified that teachers engaged in some unethical behaviors that negatively impacted the environment and students. For teachers to make ethical decisions in their relations with the environment, it is considered important that decision makers implement policies that function to increase their ethical awareness level.

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An Experimental Study on Measuring the Impact of Using Virtual Laboratories in Developing Some Metacognition Skills (Planning, Monitoring, and Control) in the Subject of Physics

Abeer S. Alzahrani Majed A. Alharthi
Pages: 947-965

The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of using virtual laboratories in developing some Metacognition skills in the subject of physics among third-grade female students. The research adopted a quasi-experimental design, with a sample of 30 students evenly divided between the control and experimental groups, with 15 students in each group. To achieve the research objectives, the researcher designed a scale for Metacognition skills. The results revealed statistically significant differences between the average scores of the experimental group and the control group in some Metacognition skills (planning, monitoring, and control) in the post-application phase in favor of the experimental group, which studied using virtual laboratories. Furthermore, the results indicated a significant effect size of using virtual laboratories in developing Metacognition skills among third-grade female students in Jeddah. Based on the findings, the research recommends the utilization of virtual laboratory technology in teaching physics and the organization of training courses for physics teachers.

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Differentiating Mathematics for Gifted Children: A Professional Development Project for In-Service Teachers

Deniz Özen Ünal Ahmet Bildiren
Pages: 966-980

Gifted children should receive education that is appropriate to their potential, but the question is whether this is possible without a great deal of teacher competence. This project aims to increase the professional competence of mathematics teachers who were provided with training on the appropriate strategies for gifted students. In this study the knowledge and views of the teachers about the giftedness and the information used in gifted education is investigated. In the training process, seminars were provided regarding the teaching strategies used in gifted education, challenging mathematical tasks to be used to reveal and develop potential, and the differentiation of teaching with the help of technology. The participants of the study were 25 middle/high school in-service mathematics teachers from 17 provinces throughout the country. The teachers learned the teaching strategies for the gifted, and they provided enrichment using challenging mathematical tasks and technological tools.

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Exploring the Impact of Special Learning Disability Diagnosis on Family Dynamics: A Parental Perspective

Fatih Eray Ercan Öpengin
Pages: 981-990

The aim of this study was to examine parental views on the effect of having a child diagnosed with a special learning disability on families. In line with the purpose of the research, phenomenological design, a qualitative research approach, was used. The study group consists of the parents of 12 children diagnosed with special learning disabilities, who are students in schools affiliated to the Van Province National Education Directorate in the 2022–2023 academic year. The data collection tools of the research are semi-structured interview questions with 24 questions and a demographic information form, which was created by the researchers, taking the opinions of 3 different experts. The obtained data were converted into themes. Themes of the research; the pre-diagnosis process, the diagnostic process, family relations, and social relations. Parents reported that there was no change in their social life after their child received this diagnosis. However, they stated that they avoided talking to people outside their close circle about the diagnosis of special learning disabilities in their children. They said that the relations between parents were not affected by the diagnosis of special learning disability, but the relations between siblings and children with special learning difficulties were badly affected. In addition, it has been observed that families do not have sufficient information about the diagnosis of special learning disability. In this context, informative studies to be conducted in schools for parents about special learning disabilities may enable them to be noticed earlier and to better adjust their expectations for their children ’s performance.

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Investigating Earthquake Anxiety Levels of Child Development Associate Degree Student

Seda Eskidemir Meral
Pages: 991-1001

After the February 6 earthquakes in 2023 in the South-east of Turkey, this study, which was conducted to examine the earthquake anxiety levels of associate degree students of child development according to various variables, is a survey model. The study population consists of associate degree students of the child development department. The study sample consists of 212 students who volunteered to participate in the study at Akdeniz University and Osmaniye Korkut Ata University in the associate degree program of child development. The data were collected online through the Personal Information Form and Earthquake Anxiety Scale (Bal & Akgül, 2023). As a result of the study, it was determined that the earthquake anxiety levels of associate degree students in child development differed significantly according to gender, age, being in one of the provinces affected by the earthquake, losing a relative in the earthquake, and the destruction of their houses. During the February 6 earthquakes, it was found that the earthquake anxiety levels of female child development associate degree students who were in one of the provinces affected by the earthquake, whose houses were destroyed and who lost their relatives in the earthquake, and who were 19 years of age or older was higher than the others. It was determined that the earthquake anxiety levels of associate degree students of child development did not differ significantly depending on the grade level and the type of graduated high school.

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Examining the Mediating Role of Forgiveness in the Relationship between University Students’ Belonging and Flourishing

Muhammet Fatih Yılmaz
Pages: 1002-1013

With the development of the field of positive psychology, research on how positive concepts of human nature predict mental health has become widespread. A concept that explain positive mental health development is flourishing. This study examines the mediating role of forgiveness in the relationship between belongingness and flourishing among university students. A total of 381 university students (211 females and 170 males, Mage = 21.12 ± 2.23) participated in the study and completed the Flourishing Scale, General Belongingness Scale, Heartland Forgiveness Scale, and Personal Information Form. Hayes (2018) developed Model 4 within the SPSS macro PROCESS v4 to examine the mediating role of forgiveness between belongingness and flourishing. The results of the research model indicated a significant and positive link among belongingness, forgiveness, and flourishing. According to the research model, belongingness is predicted to flourish through the partial mediation of forgiveness. These findings indicate that belongingness improves university students’ forgiveness, thereby enhancing their flourishing. In addition, belongingness helps university students flourish. In the Discussion and Conclusion section, explanations related to the research findings, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research were provided.

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A Study of Children’s Outdoor Playground Designs Using Pictures

Gökçen İlhan Ildız Emine Ahmetoğlu
Pages: 1014-1023

This study, aimed at examining outdoor playground designs for children through children ’s drawings, was designed using a phenomenological design, which is a qualitative research method used to reveal and interpret individual perceptions or perspectives regarding a particular phenomenon. In line with the research objective, children aged 7-10, living in a neighborhood in the city center of Edirne, voluntarily participated in the study and were asked to draw a picture of their dream playground. In this context, 120 children were included in the study. The children ’s drawings were analyzed using descriptive and content analyzes. Within the scope of descriptive analysis, codings were made in the categories of "Variety of Play Elements," "Vegetation Materials," "Equipment," and "Ground," based on the "design criteria for children's playgrounds" determined through literature review. Elements that were outside the "design criteria for children's playgrounds" were examined through content analysis and categorized as "play centers," "animals," "other people," "vendors," "sky elements," and "other." The coding was performed independently by three experts. The findings obtained from the children ’s drawings were evaluated and discussed in conjunction with studies in the literature. Because of the analysis, it was found that children included risky play equipment in their drawings, and it was recommended that when designing children ’s playgrounds, safe play equipment suitable for risky play should be included

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The Profiles of Teacher’s Classroom Management Styles in Terms of Reward and Praise: A Latent Profile Analysis

Özgür Bolat
Pages: 1024-1037

Classroom management is one of the key elements that influence the quality of education in the classroom. However, most teachers view classroom management as an important challenge. To address that challenge, teachers use different classroom management tools, two of which are reward and praise. However, there are different views about the effectiveness of reward and praise. While the behavioral school views them as positive classroom management tools, Self-Determination Theory argues that reward and praise are the tools of a controlling teaching style. It suggests that an autonomy-enhancing teaching style, such as establishing warm relationship with students, is a better classroom management tool. The aim of this study is to explore different profiles of teachers in terms of their classroom management styles, especially in terms of how teachers use reward and praise as well as punishment and warm relationship by using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA). The data were collected a sample of 579 teachers. Teachers completed four scales (The Reward Scale, The Praise Scale, The Emotional Punishment Scale and The Warmth Scale). Teachers were profiled, based on their use of these four classroom management tools. As a result of the LPA, five profiles of teachers in terms of classroom management styles emerged. They were named as “Disengaged Teachers”, “Cold Punishers”, “Cold Extrinsic Motivators”, “Warm Extrinsic Motivators”, and “Warm Intrinsic Motivators.” As predicted, Warm Intrinsic Motivators who do not use reward, praise or emotional punishment but warm relationships are the best in classroom management. Unlike our prediction, Warm Extrinsic Motivators, who use reward and praise, were also good at classroom management since they were warm towards their students. However, they were using emotional punishment. These findings suggest that teachers who use reward also use emotional punishment. Teachers do not have to use reward, praise or punishment to manage their classes. Teachers could manage their classroom perfectly well by forming warm relationships with their students. It is essential for school leaders to incorporate relationship-building as an important classroom management tool into their professional development activities for teachers.

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Teacher Candidates’ Research Literacy (The Case of Gazi University)

Handan Kocabatmaz Gülçin Kezban Saraçoğlu
Pages: 1038-1053

This study aims to reveal teacher candidates’ research literacy and to investigate their levels of research literacy according to gender and department variables. The research was carried out following correlational survey model, which is a comparative model. The sample of the study, which consists of 311 teacher candidates, was determined in line with the convenience sampling method. Research data were collected by the researchers via Personal Information Form and Teachers’ Research Literacy Skills Scale for teacher candidates. In order to identify teacher candidates’ research literacy skills, data were analyzed by using Friedman Test, Wilcoxon Test, Mann Witney U Test, Kruskal Wallis H Test, and Spearman Correlation Test techniques. In accordance with the results of the study, it was found that teacher candidates have sufficient skills in research literacy, and there are significant differences in skills between the subdimensions of research literacy. The findings of the study indicate that students in the faculty of education have research literacy regardless of their gender, but there is a significant difference according to the variable of the department, and this difference is on behalf of teacher candidates in Turkish Language Teaching and Social Sciences Teaching departments.

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Reasoning Ways Scale: Validity and Reliability Study for Teachers

Meltem Yalın Uçar
Pages: 1054-1064

This study investigated whether the Reasoning Ways Scale is a valid and reliable teacher measurement tool. The Reasoning Ways Scale, previously developed for pre-service teachers consist of seven sub-dimensions and 21 items. In this study, for the validity and reliability of the Reasoning Ways Scale for teachers, 520 teachers working in different cities and in different branches in the 2022-2023 academic year were reached by appropriate sampling method. The study data were analyzed using SPSS 25.0. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses were conducted for the construct validity of the Reasoning Ways Scale for teachers. As a result of these analyses, it was determined that the instrument had a structure consisting of seven sub-dimensions and 21 items. The reliability coefficients of the sub-dimensions of the measurement tool were obtained as Verbal, 0.85; Historical, 0.81; Algebraic, 0.78; Intuitive, 0.77; Analogical, 0.72; Inductive, 0.67 and Deductive, 0.61. The statistical results also supported acceptable goodness-of-fit indices for the seven-dimensional factor structure of the instrument/acceptable goodness-of-fit indices for the dimensional factor structure; (χ²(210) =3378.718; p<0.01), RMSEA= 0.041; GFI= 0.947; AGFI= 0.928; CFI= 0.953. Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient of the overall scale was .74. The results obtained are statistically similar to those of the Reasoning Ways Scale. Therefore, the Reasoning Ways Scale is a valid and reliable instrument for Teachers.

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A Different Perspective of Teachers on The Issue of Syrian Students in Türkiye: A Comparative Analysis

Ömer Faruk Abide
Pages: 1065-1081

The purpose of this study is to comparatively examine the opinions of teachers who have Syrian students in their classrooms and those who have never been involved in educational activities with Syrian students. The study is based on the case study design, a qualitative research approach. The study group consists of primary school teachers who work at public schools and are divided into two groups considering the presence of Syrian students in their classrooms. In the research process, the data were collected using a semi-structured interview form and analysed through the content analysis method. As a result of the analyses, five themes were created to represent the problems experienced by the teachers who were instructing Syrian students. In this context, several codes were listed under the themes of “communication problems”, “disciplinary problems”, “adaptation problems”, “academic problems”, and “other problems”. The problems considered likely by the teachers who did not have any Syrian students were grouped under four themes, including “communication problems”, “disciplinary problems”, “adaptation problems”, and “academic problems”, and some codes were presented relevantly. Likewise, four themes were created to represent the solutions proposed by the teachers in both groups for the aforementioned problems, and several codes were listed under the themes of “academic measures”, “language education”, “harmonisation activities” and “other measures”. With these research findings, the problems and solution proposals expressed by the teachers were compared based on the presence of Syrian students in the classroom. Then the similarities and differences were listed. Consequently, it was revealed that the teachers in both groups mainly highlighted language issues as part of the communication problems faced in the education of Syrian students. It was also identified that the teachers in both groups expressed that the problems arising from the presence of Syrian students in the classroom would have highly adverse effects on other students. In addition, it was concluded that the teachers who had Syrian students mostly proposed solutions within the scope of academic measures and language education, whereas the other group of teachers generally offered solutions regarding language education and harmonisation activities.

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