Volume 7 Issue 4

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Score Level, Text Structures and Senior Secondary School Students’ Achievement in Genetics in Ilorin, Nigeria

Hafsat Imam Alabi Isaac Olakanmi Abimbola
Pages: 198-209

Genetics is one of the hard to learn biological concepts owing to its connectedness to Latin / Greek origin. Hence, the need for its proper structuring for easy comprehension by the students. The effectiveness of text structure on students’ proper understanding had been widely reported in literature, hence, this study investigated score levels, text structures and senior secondary school students' achievement in genetics. Specifically, the study assessed the: (i) variation in the achievement of students taught using different text structures (ii) interaction effects of text structures and score levels on senior school students’ achievement in genetics among others. A quasi-experimental design of pretest, posttest, non-equivalent, and non-randomized control group was adopted. A total of 239 students purposively selected took part in the study. ANCOVA was used to analysed the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. Findings indicated that there was (i) a statistically significant difference in the achievement of students exposed to different text structure i.e., F (2, 238) = 15.11 at p < 0.05; (ii) no statistically significant difference in the interaction effects of text structure and score level. The implication of the finding is that the two structured texts were useful for improving senior school students’ achievement in genetics. It was therefore, recommended that biology teachers should consider logical prose and concept maps in structuring their instructional materials.

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COVID-19 Pandemic and Changes in Parents’ School Preferences in Bursa Province

Fuat Sekmen Haşmet Gökırmak İsa Demirkol
Pages: 210-218

This study examines families’ preferences to choose the best educational institutions for their children in Bursa, Turkey, using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) Model. For this purpose, sixty-one face-to-face interviews were conducted with students and their parents at private high schools, public high schools, and open high schools in Bursa. Health concerns, quality, price, time management, safety, and self-confidence were considered criteria in determining families’ decisions in private, public, and open high schools. The AHP results reveal that the most important criteria are health concerns with 44.91%, quality with 21.30%, safety with 12.02%, price with 8.88%, time management with 6.71%, and self-confidence is the least important criterion, which has a percentage of 6.24%. According to the criteria, values reached within the same method ranking use the criteria weights for health concerns, quality, safety, price, time management, and self-confidence. According to the AHP-weighted SAW method, private high schools are in the first place, public schools in the second place, and open high schools in the third place.

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A Novel System, Method and Perspective Plan for the Assessments of Higher Education’s Progress Towards the UN Sustainable Development Goals

Ali Mohammad Ghulam
Pages: 219-231

Education is considered an integral element for Sustainable Development and Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4 on quality education is a key enabler for all other SDGs. Therefore, research is primarily focused on roles and responsibilities of Higher Education Systems and in the same direction a novel System, Method and Perspective Plan in form of a Project is proposed which will facilitate any country in formation of a Global Knowledge Hub, a data service provider for common people, for researchers, for the Ministry, for each Institution, for the UN representatives and for other associated stakeholders. In addition to this, this will exactly reflect contributions made so far by Higher Education Systems and its' outcomes. This will also reflect, how Higher Education Systems are helping to achieve 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals and their targets by 2030. In the paper, some additional useful information is cited pertaining to UN-SDGs based on the published documents in a sequential and systematic manner and this will help to understand better about the mission, vision and objectives of UN Sustainable Development Goals, what are the roles and responsibilities of Higher Education Systems in the same context till 2030 onwards with a constant approach, the initiatives which have been taken so far and the initiatives being undertaken now. Some additional measures and about convergence are also suggested. It is also discussed well about SDG Index & Dashboards and about some major thrust areas. Since, some additional useful information is cited, source of information for each citation is properly mentioned in the references column.

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School Board ‘Visibility’ During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Education Management Musings From A Tripartite Case Study of Schools in Central Uganda

Gyaviira Musoke Genza
Pages: 232-243

School level education management requires the active involvement of both school administration and the board of governors. Without board’s supervisory eye, school administration may easily lapse to the detriment of education quality. How, then, did school boards execute their oversight mandate during the difficult times of COVID-19? Using a tripartite case study design, the study examined school board ‘visibility’ in school management during COVID-19 with focus on the ensuing education management lessons. Results showed that, during the pandemic, the visibility of different school boards varied from ‘considerable’ to ‘no visibility’ depending on certain interesting factors. It was concluded that there is no single uniform descriptor of board’s visibility during an emergency such as COVID-19. Secondly, there are both materialistic and altruistic antecedents of boards’ visibility levels. The study serves as a correction to the stakeholder model’s excessive faith in board members’ disinterested commitment to service of the common good. It also recasts the question of board membership for better school management.

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Perceived Learning Difficulties of Students in Flexible Learning in A Philippine State College

Julius Ruger Hermano Sol Denamarca
Pages: 244-252

The sudden shift from traditional classes to flexible learning due to the threat of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to numerous challenges. This descriptive research study was conducted at Iloilo State College of Fisheries to determine the perceived learning difficulties of the Second-Year College of Education students for the year 2021-2022. Data were obtained using a 20-item online survey questionnaire from 86 purposively selected respondents and subjected to certain computerized statistical tools for the analysis. The data revealed that students struggled mainly because of a lack of internet connection at home, long exposure to their gadgets, and balancing household chores and online activities. Thus, the slow internet connection may be improved, online classes may be limited only to one hour, and teachers may become more compassionate and understanding to students and attend various seminars to create an effective learning environment, improve teaching-learning situations using modern instructional devices and inspire them to become better teachers in the modern world. Infrastructure and mechanisms may also be established to reduce the interruption of learning and provide quality materials for education.

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Examination of School Managers’ Opinions on Localization in Education

Mehmet Ali YARIM
Pages: 253-261

In this study, it is aimed to examine the opinions of school principals about decentralization in school administrations. The research is in the qualitative research method. In the research, the phenemology model of qualitative research was used. The study group was selected by purposive sampling method and consists of six school principals experienced in school management. Data were obtained through interview and analyzed by content analysis. According to the results of the research, school principals experience various problems in management, the main ones being pressure from the supervisor, financial inadequacies, personnel shortages and clumsiness and slowness caused by the bureaucratic structure. These problems experienced by school principals are closely related to localization and result from the fact that schools are managed with a centralized structure. School principals believe that decentralization in education is necessary. They think that decentralization in school management will save public money, get rid of the excessive workload of the central government, increase success and efficiency in education, and help ensure adocracy and peace in schools and society. While decentralization has benefits, it can cause some inequalities and negativities. It is recommended to create the necessary environment for this and to make legal and structural preparations.

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Availability of Laboratory Facilities on Students’ Performance in Upper Basic Schools in Kwara State, Nigeria

Florence Omosholape Abidoye Ahmed Mulkah Adebisi Ahmed Aduke Rihanat Maroof Zainab Aliyu
Pages: 262-267

The study was carried out on the availability of laboratory facilities in teaching of Basic Science on the Students’ academic performance in Upper Basic Schools, Kwara State, Nigeria. This target population for the study was all Basic Science Teachers in Kwara State, Nigeria, four hundred and sixty-nine (469) Public Upper Basic Schools and three hundred and sixty two (362) private schools are available in the study area. The researcher designed teachers' questionnaire and was administered to two hundred and thirty six (236) Basic science teachers that were selected from forty-seven Upper Basic Schools (47) from both public and private schools in Kwara State. Researcher-designed validated questionnaire was used to extract data from the respondents on the teachers 'influence on the performance of students in Upper Basic Schools. Three research questions were raised with two hypotheses which were tested. Percentage and t-test statistics were used to analyze the facts collected. The finding showed that influence of Basic science teachers on the performance of students in Upper Basic Schools in Kwara State, Nigeria was significantly. It was also significant based on gender and on year teaching experience of Basic science teachers. According to the findings, it is suggested that; the educational authorities and the school system should encourage the use of available resources by providing for them, the necessary materials that will influence Basic Science performance and enhance students learning. Basic Science teachers should re-assess their classroom instructional practice because there is a need for them to shift from instructional practice that will give the male and female teachers’ equal opportunities to excel in instructional activities. The less-experienced Basic Science teachers should be allowed for cognate experience and help encourage the experience to acquire more experience.

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PECHETTY SVR BABU Taye Mosisa Gemeda Asfaw Gelaw Nefa
Pages: 268-279

Job satisfaction is a worker’s sense of achievement and success on the job. It is generally perceived to be directly linked to productivity as well as to personal well-being. Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys, doing it well and being rewarded for one’s efforts. Job satisfaction further implies enthusiasm and happiness with one’s work. Job satisfaction is the key ingredient that leads to recognition, income, promotion and the achievement of other goals that lead to a feeling of fulfillment. Aim: Job satisfaction as a function of self-efficacy and personal strain among high school teachers in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh state of India. Objective: To assess the impact of self-efficacy and personal strain on job satisfaction among high school teachers. Sample: Sample of the present study consists of 400 primary teachers in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh State. Tools: The job satisfaction scale developed by Karanam Bahaboobuvali and Vijaya Vardhini (2013), self-efficacy scale standardized by Nelson and Copeland (2004) and personal strain questionnaire was assessed and standardized by Samuel Osipow and Spokane (1987) were used. Conclusion: Results revealed that self-efficacy and personal strain have significant impact on job satisfaction.

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A Mixed-Method Research on the Effectiveness of Using Gamification Elements in an Online English Course

Ayşenur Çınar Yavuz Erişen Mine Çeliköz
Pages: 280-291

In this study, the embedded design mixed method in which qualitative and quantitative data were applied together and was aimed to determine the effectiveness of gamification applications and LMS use in online English lessons. The study was implemented in a secondary school in Istanbul. The purposeful sampling method, a non-random sampling method, was performed. The students were divided into control and experiment groups randomly. The control group consisted of 44 students, and the experiment group was 47. A pre-test via an online testing tool adapted from a norm-referenced/academic achievement test designed by the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) to examine the students' background knowledge level related to the topic chosen. In this study. The control group was taught the 7th unit of the 5th grade English book 'Party time via traditional presentation methods. In contrast, the experimental group was the same subject via versatile gamification apps such as Kahoot, Classdojo, Quizziz, and web-based games. As a result, there was a significant change between the pre-posttest change in the experimental group. Accordingly, the Posttest means of those in the experimental group are statistically significant. Following the post-test, semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten students in the experimental group, who were selected by criterion sampling method. According to the data obtained from the interviews, the students were satisfied with the course activities. Moreover, students stated that other lessons should be conducted with interactive applications in addition to English lessons.

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Professional Value-Oriented Life Tendency Scale Teacher Form Validity and Reliability Study

Şadiye İnci Şaban Çetin
Pages: 292-306

In this study, it is aimed to develop a measurement tool to determine teachers' professional value-oriented living tendencies. By scanning the literature, the scale development stages were followed and a draft scale form with 50 items was created. The prepared draft form was applied to 25 teachers as a preliminary test and then rearranged in line with expert opinions. The prepared form was applied to a research group consisting of 1130 teachers working in public schools (primary school, secondary school and high school) in the central districts of Ankara in the spring term of the 2020-2021 academic year. Study Group 1 data were used to determine the validity and reliability of the scale, and Study Group 2 data were used for CFA. EFA was applied to the data obtained from 300 teachers, called Study Group 1, within the scope of validity and reliability study. In the second stage, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted on the data obtained from 875 teachers, called Study Group 2, in order to verify the factor structure of the scale in another sample. As a result of the exploratory factor analysis, it was determined that the scale had a three-factor structure. The Cronbach Alpha internal consistency coefficient was 0.98 for the overall scale, 0.96 for the 1st sub-factor, 0.77 for the 2nd sub-factor, and 0.86 for the 3rd sub-factor. As a result of confirmatory factor analysis, the RMSEA value was found to be 0.049. In addition, the GFI, AGFI, CFI, NFI and NNFI values, which are expressed as goodness fit indices, are found to be 0.99, which is very close to 1, which shows that good fit values are obtained. As a result of the analyzes made, a 33-item scale form with the necessary measurement reliability was developed to serve to measure the professional value-oriented life tendencies of teachers.

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A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Different Integrated STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) Approaches on Primary Students' Attitudes

Hakan Ulum
Pages: 307-317

The purpose of this meta-analysis is to combine the results of experimental research completed between 2012 and 2022 and to examine the effects of different integrated STEM approaches on the attitudes of elementary school children. In the meta-analysis for the study on the effects of several integrated STEM approaches on the attitudes of elementary school children, five studies were selected based on particular criteria. The study included subgroup analyses in addition to exposing the overall effect of various integrated STEM approaches on the attitudes of elementary school children. According to the research findings, the Hedges g value, which is calculated to be 0.279 for the total effect size of diverse integrated STEM approaches on the attitudes of elementary school pupils, shows a small influence. In addition, the results of the analysis revealed that the impacts of different integrated STEM approaches on the attitudes of primary school pupils did not differ according to grade levels, but differed according to attitude area and integration. The results of the present study support the need for additional research on STEM-integrated learning activities that influence student motivation and pursuit of STEM jobs.

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A Creative way to Stimulate Children Motoric Skill: Improving the Writing Ability of Students with Mild Intellectual Disorders in Saudi Arabia

Firas Ahmad Saleem Al Taqatqa
Pages: 318-323

This research aims at examining the effectiveness of the Finger Sand Painting Alphabet Media in helping children with dysgraphia to improve their writing skill. The study uses quasi experimental design with control and experimental group. This study's results might be used as a jumping-off point for defending the position that children's right to free expression is not crucial. This study's findings indicating the amount of improvement in learning outcomes is practically the same provide confidence to this concept and lend support to its believability. In contrast, this conclusion is hasty since much more in-depth study is needed to determine how the freedom of expression effects the development of motor abilities. This collection of studies concludes that a more organized method of teaching may have the same positive effects.

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The Positive Impact of Using Podcasts in Education in El Baha University College of Science and Arts Elmikhwa Branch

Amal Ibrahim
Pages: 324-328

The objective of this article is to present the positive impact of podcasts on education in general and to investigate the effect of the use of podcasts in teaching and learning or education. When performed properly podcasts can improve several aspects of education. First, podcasts can act as an innovative teaching resource for instructors to design new classroom activities. Second, it has learning benefits for students inside and outside the classroom which support the learning process. Lastly, podcasts can improve teacher preparation and planning of the lesson. The research used descriptive and analytical methods to show the effect of performing podcasts in the classroom and how it enhances the teaching and learning process. The study concluded the positive impact of using podcasts in education and being a digital teacher helps to enhance the teaching and learning process.

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Adaptation of Teachers’ Self-Efficacy for Homework Management Scale into Turkish

Fatih Yılmaz Celalettin Çelebi
Pages: 329-338

Homework can be described as the activities assigned be done out of school hours to reinforce learning. Self-efficacy beliefs of teachers about homework are directly related to the quality of homework. Teachers are also expected be knowledgeable about homework process in order to maximize the benefit. The purpose of this research is to adapt The Teachers’ Self Efficacy for Homework Management scale developed by Alkhasuri et al. into Turkish. In order for the validity studies of the adapted scale, the confirmatory factor analysis has been done, of which results indicate that the adapted scale has acceptable fit and consists of three factors as in the original version. Moreover, factors of the adapted scale are highly correlated. As for the reliability, Cronbach’s alpha technique has been adopted. The results revealed that while the overall scale has excellent reliability, the factors have good reliability scores. At the end of the research, it has been concluded that scale can be used in studies to be done with Turkish samples. Lastly, some suggestions have also been made for further studies.

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Examination Of The Relationship Between High School Students' Problem Solving Skills, Perceived Stress, And Life Satisfaction

Mustafa Demir Nihan Arslan
Pages: 339-344

This study was conducted to examine the relationships between problem solving skills, perceived stress and life satisfaction. In addition, it was aimed to determine how these variables changed according to demographic characteristics. The sample group of the research consists of a total of 430 high school students determined by the convenient sampling method. The research was designed with the Relational Screening Model. In the research, ' Sociodemographic Information Form', 'Problem Solving Skills Inventory', 'Perceived Stress Scale' and 'Life Satisfaction Scale' were used as data collection tools . Independent Groups t-Test, One-Way Analysis of Variance and Pearson Correlation Analysis were used in the analysis of the data. Findings obtained from the research show that there is a negative correlation between problem solving skills and perceived stress; It shows that there is a positive relationship between problem solving skills and life satisfaction, and a negative and statistically significant relationship between perceived stress and life satisfaction

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The Educational Problems of Migrant Children: Findings and Recommendations

Özlem Yüksek Telsaç Savaş Karagöz Cüneyt Telsaç
Pages: 345-354

Migration emerges as a result of many factors. It can occur due to many reasons such as sociological, economic, political and environmental. It is possible to evaluate the effects of migration as a result, but considering that migration itself is a major factor that can cause sociological, demographic, economic and political changes, it would not be wrong to state that it represents a real cause with this role. Migration elements that can be developed in different geographies may show similarity, or they may arise from completely different and region-specific reasons. Migration can take place within the borders of the country or outside the borders of the country depending on many reasons, as well as it can develop singly or massively, voluntarily or compulsoryMigration has a structure that deeply affects human life in every sense and causes great changes. Even if people migrate voluntarily of their own free will, they may have to face some adaptation problems and social differences. This situation; can cause extremely distressing results for asylum seekers and refugees who migrate forcibly. The difficulties that arise can be even more dramatic, especially for migrant children. In order to cope with these new challenges they face; it is of great importance that especially children from other countries learn the spoken language and culture of the place they go to as soon as possible in order to overcome the problems. At this stage, the inclusion of immigrant children in the education system and the guidance services to be implemented play a decisive role.In this study, using observation and literature review methods; the difficulties faced by immigrant families regarding education and especially the problems that arise in terms of foreign children are discussed and some suggestions are made for solutions. © IJERE. All rights reserved

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Investigation of Prospective Teachers’ Attitudes towards Classroom as a Learning Environment

Filiz Çetin Engin Demir A. Selcen Bingöl
Pages: 355-365

In this study, the attitudes of teacher candidates towards the classroom as a learning environment was aimed to be examined. In order to determine the attitudes of teacher candidates towards the classroom as a learning environment, survey methods was used. The participants of this research consisted freshman and final year studying at the education faculty of a state university. The convenience sampling method was used while selecting the participants in the study. Accordingly, data were collected from 348 prospective teachers. The data of the research was obtained via the “Attitude Scale towards Classroom as a Learning Environment". The data was analyzed with non-parametric tests. As a result of the research, it was determined that prospective teachers’ attitude scores towards the classroom as a learning environment were at a moderate level. Attitudes of female prospective teachers towards the classroom as a learning environment are more positive than those of males. Women find class less boring. The students of the fine arts education department see the classroom as indispensable in terms of the learning environment, in contrast to the students of the mathematics and science education department and the special education department. Students with a medium level perception of academic success have more negative attitudes towards the classroom as a learning environment than those with a good perception of academic success. Prospective teachers who are not satisfied with their department consider the classroom an indispensable learning environment compared to those who are partially satisfied. In light of the findings, it was suggested that classroom environments in education faculties should be improved in terms of classroom learning environment dimensions to help prospective teachers to develop positive attitudes.

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Environmental Literacy: Comparison between Chemistry Teacher Candidates, Chemistry Teachers, and Individuals in Environmentally Related Professions

Emre Özdil Ayşe Yalçın Çelik
Pages: 366-379

An essential component of preventing environmental issues is environmental education. Environmental education's primary goal is to raise people's environmental literacy—their understanding and sensitivity to the environment. The purpose of this study is to compare the environmental literacy of chemistry teacher candidates, chemistry teachers, and environmentally related professions in terms of their awareness of environmental issues, knowledge, attitude, and use. It also seeks to find out how gender and experience affect environmental literacy. A total of 793 people from three groups participated in the study. Participants completed an environmental literacy scale that included components for environmental knowledge, environmental attitude, environmental concern, and environmental use. According to the results of the research, it was determined that the three participant groups were sufficient in the components of environmental attitude, environmental use, and environmental concern, but their level of knowledge about environmental issues was not sufficient. Considering the total environmental literacy scores of the study groups, a statistically significant difference was determined in favor of chemistry teachers compared to the other groups. In addition, it was determined that the level of environmental literacy differed according to the o gender and professional experience of teachers.

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“A School Polluted by Noise”: A Semiotic Analysis of Children's Pictures

Mızrap Bulunuz Derya Bekiroğlu Melike Tantan Nermin Bulunuz
Pages: 380-394

In this study, pictures drawn by primary school students about noise were analyzed semiotically. The study was carried out with 20 primary school student volunteers. Research data are the pictures drawn by the children and semi-structured interview records. From the analysis of the students' drawings, three main themes, namely "visual indicator", "sign", and "symbol" are identified in this paper. The reasons for the noise in the school are depicted quite well in the student pictures; noise is reflected as a phenomenon that is disturbing, destructive, threatening physiological-psychological health, and negatively affecting social life and learning in school. However, paintings also showed that the children perceived sound and noise as the same concept. Students identified calmness in the classroom with the teacher. Findings suggested that activities should be included to improve the sound and noise awareness of the students at the school, initiate awareness in a school of silence as a shared social value, and physically improve school acoustic quality.

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Harmonization Problem of Refugee Students: Turkey Case

Yunus Akdeniz Serhat Arslan
Pages: 395-417

In this study, Syrian refugee students’, who have been living in Turkey since the beginning of the Syrian civil war, adaptation problems and the level of Turkish students’ adoption, are searched in terms of gender and class level. In this context, investigating Republic of Turkey’s education policies, possible problems in future and solutions are aimed with the opinions of the instructors of temporary training centers with the help of semi-structured interview form. The sample group of this study is formed of 700 students from Şanlıurfa Haliliye Rabia Hatun Girl Anatolian Religious High School, Konuklu Vocational and Technical Anatolian High School, Rabia Hatun Religious Temporary Training Center and Milli İrade Temporary Training Center, 211 of them are refugees and 489 of them are Turkish. 173 of these students are male and 527 of them are female. For the qualitative part of the study, 15 temporary education center instructors are viewed from 4 different cities. In this study, Syrian refugee students’ adaptation problems and the level of Turkish students’ adoption are searched in terms of gender and class level and temporary training centers’ instructors’ opinions on these topics and refugees’ educational status are analyzed. In addition to this, while explaining the variances, the figures like average, standard deviation, and percentiles were represented.

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