Compatibility between History Textbooks and Historian’s Historiography in terms of Historical Reasoning: The Example of Halil İnalcık and Establishment of Ottoman State in Turkish History Education

Volume 8 Issue 2 (March 2023)
Fatma Gültekin
Pages: 322-329 Download Count : 558 View Count: 569 DOI Number 10.24331/ijere.1251104 Facebook Share on Google+ Save to Zotero Save to Mendeley


To answer the question of how to think historically, the best and most common examples of historical reasoning can be found in historians' historiography. Textbooks, as the most and sometimes even the only used materials by students and teachers in history education, should be in parallel with the writing of history. From this point of view, the research aimed to find out the compatibility of the Turkish history textbooks with historiography in terms of historical reasoning. In the study, Halil İnalcık's article and the relevant parts of the second unit of the 10th grade history textbook were examined on the subject of the establishment of the Ottoman State. Historical reasoning/argumentation is divided into three categories: approaches of reasoning (inductive, deductive), techniques of reasoning (formal, informal) and reasoning procedures (analogical, reasoning for differences, pros-cons, proportional, criterion, modality). The two texts were compared according to these categories. As a result of the research, it was determined that the textbook was compatible with İnalcık's article in terms of reasoning approaches and techniques, but incompatible in terms of reasoning procedures. In addition, it has been determined that the textbook contains less reasoning but more knowledge than the article. In line with this finding, it can be concluded that history textbooks are incomplete in terms of supporting historical reasoning. In this respect, history textbooks need to be examined and improved more comprehensively


  • Historical reasoning
  • history textbooks
  • Halil İnalcık
Download PDF